Red Sea Parting
      The greatest highlight of any movie made about Moses and the Exodus is watching the scene when the Israelites are caught between a rock and a hard spot. In front of them is a vast sea of water, and behind them is the Egyptian army of pharaoh, with a chariot force of 600 strong right on their boot tails.
Moses parting the Red Sea
      From a human standpoint, its game over. They are faced with impossible odds of surviving an eminent attack by the merciless Egyptian army.
       But as with most movies, Hollywood always seems to leave out some very important details that the Bible includes. You see, in Exodus 13:21, God himself was traveling ahead of them to guide them. He was in a pillar of cloud to guide them by day and in a pillar of fire to light their way at night.
      Exodus 14:9 also states that 'The Angel of the Lord' was also traveling in front of the Israelites, guiding them on their journey. And when the Egyptian army came within range of the Israelites, both the cloud and the Angel of the Lord moved to the rear of the camp to stop pharaoh's army from advancing any closer.
      Then Moses lifts up his rod as commanded by the Lord, and God parts open the waters of the Red Sea. Then during the night the Israelites flee for their lives walking into the parted sea along the dried sea bed, with the waters of the sea making a giant wall on either side of them. And traveling right behind them, the Pillar of fire and the Angel of the Lord guarding their flank.  
       Pharaoh decides to follow them into the parted waters, advancing his chariots right behind them. But the Lord foils his plot and He throws their army into total confusion. He jams their chariot wheels so they could not be driven properly. Then they realize that God is defending the Hebrews, so they decide they need to retreat.
      When all the Israelites had finally crossed, the Lord commands Moses to stretch out his hands and the waters returned to normal, and the retreating army of Pharaoh was wiped out with a single wave of the hands.
Moses Parting Red Sea
      And indeed this story has been told over and over throughout the generations, up until this present time, that God's name might be glorified among all peoples.
      Unfortunately, in this age, there are many proud and stiff necked people, just like pharaoh. They refuse to believe in the God of Israel and in the Angel of the Lord. And they become the Lord's enemies.
       Today, they mock Him by saying this account in the Bible never really happened. But unknown by most, up until now, there is an Egyptian inscription that just might indeed mention this exact event.
      The artifact is known as the Speos Artemidos inscription of Queen Hatshepsut, who was the daughter of Thutmose I and wife of Thutmose II, both of whom, by timeline analysis, were the most likely candidates for the Exodus pharaoh.
       After analyzing the hieroglyphic text of the Speos Artemidos inscription, I came to the conclusion that the most commonly used English translations of this inscription are in error. And secondly the translators did not take into account a second alternate translation on part of the inscription that may indeed refer to the Israelites leaving through the sea, fleeing from chariots.
 
      You say, no way!
 
      Well, lets take a detailed look.
 
      First, lets look at some of the most commonly used translations of the part of the inscription in question. Although you will find these being used in different history books, I believe they are wrong and keep out some key information found on the original artifact.
1rst common translation:
 
      "Since the Asiatics were in the midst of Avaris of the Northland, and vagabonds were in the midst of them, overthrowing that which had been made. They ruled without Re, and he did not act by divine command down to the reign of my majesty."
(Ancient Near Eastern Texts, James Pritchard, Princeton University, 1969, p. 231.)
 
2nd Common translation:
 
      "37) from the time when the Asiatics were in the midst of the Delta, (in) Avaris, with vagrants in their midst, (38) toppling what had been made. They ruled without the Sun, and he did not act by god's decree down to my  uraeus-incarnation.
("The Speos Artemidos Inscription of Hatshepsut", Bulletin of the Egyptological Seminar 16 (2002), pp.1-17, pls.1+2.)   James P. Allen)
 
3rd common translation:
 
      "Since [the time] the Asiatics were in the region of Avaris of Lower Egypt! The immigrants (foreigners) among them disregard the tasks which were assigned to them, thinking [that] Re would not consent when the deified [i.e. her father Thutmosis I] assigned the rulership to my majesty!" (Biblical Archaeology Review 7:05, Sep/Oct 1981)
 
      Before going into  greater detail, I put in bold letters the words I believe are translated wrong or incomplete in these three English translations.  
      First is the word Asiatic, which is a word that can cover a wide range of nationalities from foreigners and nomads dwelling in the northern Egyptian delta and the eastern desert, to those living in the land of Canaan all the way up to Syria. The hieroglyphic symbol is ' aam' represented by the symbols: "Throw stick, owl, man."
      But the actual hieroglyphic inscription is different on the Speos Artemidos inscription. It is the word 'aamu' represented by the symbols: "throw stick, owl, chick, man, three ticks." In Egyptian 'Aamu' means 'herdsmen'. That makes a big difference. So instead of the people of Avaris on this inscription being identified as being Asiatics, they were really being identified here on this inscription as herdsmen. And I will show you in a minute why that is important.  
      Why most English translations miss this I don't know. Maybe because on some other artifacts, such as on the  Carnavon Inscription of pharaoh Kamose, the people of Avaris are indeed identified as being "aam" (Asiatics) as well.
      The second word in question is typically translated vagrant, vagabond, immigrants, or foreigners and this translation is partially correct.
      It is identified by the Egyptian word 'sh-mamu' which means foreigners, and the typical hieroglyphics used for the word is found on the inscription. But these were not just any ordinary foreigners, because following this word, or incorporated into it on the inscription are the following symbols: 'shepherd, man, and three ticks' which means; 'shepherd man plural,' or we would say the 'Shepherd men' or 'Shepherd people.'  
      So these foreigners should be identified as 'foreign shepherd people.' Which should come as no surprise, because much later on in history, the historian Josephus stated that the Egyptian historian 'Manetho,' who lived  over 1,000 years after the Exodus, called the rulers living in Avaris by the term 'Hyskos.'  Josephus said that Manetho used this term to mean the 'Shepherd kings,' and he identified them as being non Egyptians.
      By the way, you will not find the actual Egyptian word 'Hyskos' used on inscriptions dealing with Avaris in ancient Egyptian records of the 18th dynasty, around the time of the Exodus.  They were either called  the 'aam' = Asiatics, or  'aamu' = herdsman or 'sh-mamu' = foreigners with the shepherd people identification symbols afterward, meaning the 'foreign shepherd peoples.'
       Hyskos seemed to be a term the historian 'Manetho' made up to designate the people of Avaris as shepherds, and many historians have continued to use it today without them really understanding what Hyskos actually means.      
      A stela of pharaoh Kamose also identifies the people of Avaris as being the ones who were taking care of the pharaoh's cattle for many years. It states: "The sleekest of our fields are plowed for us, and our cattle are pastured in the Delta. He has not stolen any of our cattle. He holds his land, that of the water basin, and we hold Egypt."
      So the literal translation of the first part of the Speos Artemidos inscription should read more like this:
      "The boundary of those who are herdsmen dwelling in the midst of the Nile Delta, in the city of Avaris, foreigners, the shepherd people, in the midst of them (Avaris or the Nile delta.)" (Translation by John Argubright)
      Now why is all this important? Because Avaris was located in the district of Rameses in the land of Goshen, and was later incorporated into the city of Pi-Ramesses. This is likely the city the Bible identifies as Raamses in Exodus 1:11, and as being built by the Hebrews. Most likely built around the time of Joseph.
      And the occupation of the Hebrews were shepherds, who when they entered the land of Egypt became herdsmen and were put in charge of taking care of pharaoh's cattle.
      Let's read that story of Israel entering into Egypt: Genesis 47:1-11; "Then Joseph came and told Pharaoh, and said, My father and my brethren, and their flocks, and their herds, and all that they have, are come out of the land of Canaan; and, behold, they are in the land of Goshen. And he took some of his brethren, even five men, and presented them unto Pharaoh.
      "And Pharaoh said unto his brethren, What is your occupation? And they said unto Pharaoh, Thy servants are shepherds, both we, and also our fathers. . . . And Pharaoh spake unto Joseph, saying, Thy father and thy brethren are come unto thee: The land of Egypt is before thee; in the best of the land make thy father and brethren to dwell; in the land of Goshen let them dwell: and if thou knowest any men of activity among them, then make them rulers over my cattle." . . . "And Joseph placed his father and his brethren, and gave them a possession in the land of Egypt, in the best of the land, in the land of Rameses, as Pharaoh had commanded."
 
      So you say: "Ok, that pretty much seems to identify these people as the Hebrews of the Bible."
 
      But what about the parting of the Red Sea stuff. Where does that fit in?
 
      Well, what is really interesting, is when I looked at the symbols used for 'foreigner,' the hieroglyphic symbols can also be broken down into two separate words: 1) 'sha' = pool of water, lake, sea, etc. and 2) 'mamu' = runners (sometimes used for those who ran alongside chariots in battle.)
      Wow! That makes a big difference. Now the translation reads:
      "The boundary of those who are herdsmen, dwelling in the midst of the Nile Delta, in the city of Avaris. At the sea, runners, who were the shepherd people, in the midst of them (the waters of the Sea.)" (Translation by John Argubright)
      So you see, the Speos Artemidos Inscription may just indeed provide the first historical evidence we have of the account of the parting of the sea and of the Hebrews fleeing in the midst of the waters.
      And if you think that is something, the three common English translations also mistranslate the passage that follows.
      A more literal translation of the inscription in the next column reads: "Therefore overthrowing the watchful eye of our fathers rule, their posterity (the children of Avaris) did not acknowledge the god Ra. They were blind to the divine command conceived by Ra's mouth, that the female slave, by the kings divine authority, remain his." (Translation by John Argubright)
      Why is this so amazing? Well because in Exodus chapter 10 verse 11, right before the plague of locusts, pharaoh inquires of Moses as to who he will be taking along with him to worship God. Moses tells pharaoh that it will be everyone, as well as all their possessions. Pharaoh then tells Moses that only the men may leave. The female slaves along with their children would not be allowed to leave.
Locust plague on Egypt
      So not only may the parting of the Red Sea be verified on this account, but Exodus 10:11 as well.
      For your further study, at the end of this article, I have detailed and documented my research with the literal translations of the inscription along with page numbers cross referenced to an ancient Egyptian hieroglyphic dictionary for those who wish to research further.    
       But as important as this research is, it is not as important as knowing the true identity of the one mentioned as 'The Angel of the Lord' in the Biblical account. You see, throughout the Old Testament, 'The Angel of the Lord' appears many times inorder to save his people.
 
      For example, in Exodus 3:2-14 it says:
 
"And 'The Angel of the LORD' appeared unto him in a flame of fire out of the midst of a bush: and he looked, and, behold, the bush burned with fire, and the bush was not consumed. And Moses said, I will now turn aside, and see this great sight, why the bush is not burnt. And when the LORD saw that he turned aside to see, God called unto him out of the midst of the bush, and said, Moses, Moses. And he said, Here am I.  
Moses and the burning bush
      And he said, Draw not nigh hither: put off thy shoes from off thy feet, for the place whereon thou standest is holy ground. Moreover he said, I am the God of thy father, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob. And Moses hid his face; for he was afraid to look upon God. And the LORD said, I have surely seen the affliction of my people which are in Egypt, and have heard their cry by reason of their taskmasters; for I know their sorrows; And I am come down to deliver them .  . . . And Moses said unto God, Behold, when I come unto the children of Israel, and shall say unto them, The God of your fathers hath sent me unto you; and they shall say to me, What is his name? what shall I say unto them? And God said unto Moses, I AM THAT I AM: and he said, Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, I AM hath sent me unto you."
      He also appears as a man to the Moses successor, Joshua. He is identified as 'The Commander of the army of the Lord' and He tells Joshua the same thing He told Moses standing before the burning bush. "Take your sandal off your foot, for the place where you stand is Holy." Then the Scripture identifies him as the Lord while speaking to Joshua. (Joshua 5:13-6:2)
      He also shows up in the form of a man to speak to Abraham giving him the message that Sarah would have a son in her old age and that He had also come to bring judgement of Sodom and Gomorrah for their wickedness. When speaking to Abraham, the  Scripture calls Him the LORD, and Abraham also addresses Him as 'the Lord.' (Genesis 18)
      He delivers Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-Nego from the fiery furnace in Daniel 3:23-25 and He is called "one like the Son of God."
      These passages and many others are what we call a Christophany, a preincarnate appearance of Christ in the Old Testament. These titles are all given to Christ.
       The second person of the Trinity didn't have His beginning in Bethlehem, but He is from everlasting to everlasting.
The Identity and Names of Christ
 
I AM
 
      Jesus said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Before Abraham was, I AM. (John 8:58)
 
SON OF GOD
      And Simon Peter answered and said, Thou art the Christ, the Son of the living God. (Math 16:16)
 
LORD and GOD
 
      And Thomas answered and said unto him, My Lord and my God. (John 20:28)
 
COMMANDER OF THE ARMY OF THE LORD
 
His name is the Word of God. The armies of heaven were following him, riding on white horses and dressed in fine linen, white and clean. Coming out of his mouth is a sharp sword with which to strike down the nations. He will rule them with an iron scepter.a He treads the winepress of the fury of the wrath of God Almighty. On his robe and on his thigh he has this name written: KING OF KINGS AND LORD OF LORDS. (Rev 19:13-16)
Book on the Exodus
Want more evidence? Our 3 volume book series "Bible Believer's Archaeology" can be downloaded for your ebook reader or mobile device by visiting our resource download page by Clicking Here.
Research -  Please note: the page numbers listed in my literal translations are from the book: 'An Ancient Egyptian Dictionary' by E.A. Wallis Budge published in 1920.
 
1) Speos Artemidos of Hatshepsut - Column 37 Relating to the people of Avaris as being shepherds and herdsmen.
Literal Translation of Column 37 of the translation:
tcher ( boundary) (pg.908) + un = (those who are) (pg.164)  + aamu = (herdsmen)  (pg.111)  + m-qeb or m-qab = (In the midst of the circuit of the delta.) (pg.266, 768)  Note; this symbol represents northern half of Egypt, the delta swamp. +  Avaris = (Avaris city symbol) Note: the three hill symbol at the end of the name symbolizing a foreign country (city under control of foreigners) + sh-mamu = (foreigners) (pg. 741)  +  shepherd symbol & man symbol & and three ticks = (shepherd men or shepherd people) + m-qab =  (In the midst of the circuit)  (pg.266) + sen = (of them) (pg.673)  
 
Simplified Translation:
 
"The boundary of those who are herdsmen dwelling in the midst of the Nile Delta, in the city of Avaris, foreigners, the shepherd people, in the midst of them (Avaris or the Nile delta.)
 
2) Another possible translation of Speos Artemidos column 37 using the same symbols may refer to the Hebrews fleeing through the Red Sea.
Literal Translation of Column 37 of the translation:
tcher (boundary) (pg.908) + un = (those who are) (pg.164)  + aamu  =  (herdsmen)  (pg.111)  + m-qeb or m-qab = (In the midst of the circuit of the delta.) (pg.266, 768) + Avaris = (Avaris city symbol) + sha = (pool of water, lake, sea, etc)  (pg. 720) + mamu = (runners) (pg.274)  with shepherd symbol & man symbol & and three ticks referring to shepherd men or shepherd people + m-qab = (In the midst of the circuit) (pg.266)  + sen = (of them) (pg.673)  
 
Simplified Translation of column 37:
 
"The boundary of those who are herdsmen dwelling in the midst of the Nile Delta, in the city of Avaris. At the sea, runners, who were the shepherd people in the midst of them."
 
3) Speos Artemidos of Hatshepsut - Column 38
Literal Translation of column 38:
 
her (for, because, therefore) pg.492 + Uhen (overthrow) pg.177 + eye symbol (watchful) + at (fathers plural) pg.96 + Heqt (rule) pg.512 + n sen (belonging to them) pg.389 + mai (seed of men) pg.280 + nn ertat (not allowable) pg.340 + Ra symbol (sun god, sun) pg.417 + n maa (eyeless, blind, not seeing) pg.340 + ntr (divine, god) pg.401 + utch (command) pg.191 + i-t (conceived) pg.142 + ra (sun god, sun) pg.417 + r, ra (mouth) pg.416 + hen-t (female slaves) + Uraeus emblem (royal or divine authority) + men (to remain) pg.296 + ku (personal pronoun such as his, hers, theirs, ours, etc.) pg.792
 
Simplified Translation of Column 38:
 
"Therefore overthrowing the watchful eye of our fathers rule, their posterity did not acknowledge the god Ra. They were blind to the divine command conceived by Ra's mouth, that the female slave, by the kings divine authority, remain his."
 
       The Speos Artemidos Hieroglyphic shown below in vertical columns, identical as to what the artifact actually looks like. The source for the hieroglyphic illustration is from 'The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology.' Vol.32 (Dec 1946), pp.33-56. Article: Davie's copy of the Great Speos Artemidos Inscription.  Author: Alan H. Gardiner.
Speos Artemidos
Sources:
 
The Holy Bible, Author: The Lord God
Scripture taken from the King James Version unless noted.
 
Ancient Near Eastern Texts, James Pritchard, Princeton University, 1969, p. 231. Speos Artemidos - "Since the Asiatics were in the midst of Avaris of the Northland, and vagabonds were in the midst of them, overthrowing that which had been made. They ruled without Re, and he did not act by divine command down to the reign of my majesty"  
 
Bulletin of the Egyptological Seminar 16 (2002), pp.1-17, pls.1+2.) James P. Allen. The Speos Artemidos Translation - "37) from the time when the Asiatics were in the midst of the Delta, (in) Avaris, with vagrants in their midst, (38) toppling what had been made. They ruled without the Sun, and he did not act by god's decree down to my (own) uraeus-incarnation."
 
Biblical Archaeology Review 7:05, Sep/Oct 1981 The Speos Artemidos Translation - "Since [the time] the Asiatics were in the region of Avaris of Lower Egypt! The immigrants (foreigners) among them disregard the tasks which were assigned to them, thinking [that] Re would not consent when the deified [i.e. her father Thutmosis I] assigned the rulership to my majesty! "  
 
Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament with Supplement, Author: James Pritchard ISBN: 0691035032 Third edition 1969. pg.232 - "The sleekest of our fields are plowed for us, and our cattle are pastured in the Delta. He has not stolen any of our cattle. He holds his land, that of the water basin, and we hold Egypt."
 
An Ancient Egyptian Dictionary,  by E.A. Wallis Budge published in 1920  Egyptian Hieroglyphic alphabet, comprehensive listing of words and meanings.
https://archive.org/details/egyptianhierogly01budguoft
https://archive.org/details/egyptianhierogly02budguoft
 
 'The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology.' Vol.32 (Dec 1946), pp. 33-56.  Article: Davie's copy of the Great Speos Artemidos Inscription.  Author: Alan H. Gardiner.  Hieroglyphic Illustration of the  vertical columns, identical as to what the artifact actually looks like.
 
Urkunden Der 18. Dynastie, Bearbeiten Von Kurt Sethe Historisch-Biographische Urkunden.  Leipzig J. C. Hinrichs'sche Buchhandlung I 906 - The Speos Artemidos Hieroglyphic columns 37 and 38 shown illustrated horizontally for clarity.
 
Art: The Hebrews protected by the Cloud, Illustrated in 'Are You Decent?'(1927), Author: Smith, Wallace, Publisher: G. P. Putnam Sons
 
Art: Red Sea covering pharaohs army, Illustrated in 'Bible and its Story Vol. 2 (1910)
Author: Horne, Charles F., Publisher: Ira R. Hiller
 
Art: Plague of Locust and Pharaoh, Illustrated in 'The Childrens Bible being a Consecutive Arrangement of the Bible (1884), Author: Vincent, Dr. J. H., Publisher: Cassell and Company, Ltd.
 
Art: Moses and the Burning Bush, Illustrated in 'The Childrens Bible being a Consecutive Arrangement of the Bible (1884), Author: Vincent, Dr. J. H., Publisher: Cassell and Company, Ltd.
Copyright 2015 BibleHistory.net
All Rights Reserved
No permission is granted to download and save these images